E. Carleton Thurber’s List of Birds of Morris County was originally published in three installments of the True Democratic Banner on November 10, 17 and 24 of 1887. The Banner was a weekly newspaper published in Morristown, New Jersey from 1844-1917.
Thurber’s list was reviewed in Volume V (1888) of the Auk, listed in the appendix of Frank Chapman’s Color Key to North American Birds (1903, 1912), mentioned in Witmer Stone’s The Birds of New Jersey (1908), and is lauded as an “excellent” list in a review of Stone’s book in Bird-lore Volume 12 (1910).
The list is typed anew and appears on this page in its entirety. There are only a very few instances where the original microfiche/digital scan is illegible. In general, this is a fascinating look at the bird life of Morris County well over a century ago.
[The opening installment from the True Democratic Banner, Morristown, New Jersey, November 10, 1887]
On the first page of the BANNER will be found the first of the articles on the birds of Morris County. There are over 200 birds known to naturalists, that are familiar to Morris County, and we propose to give a brief description of each of these, together with any little particular in connection with their visit or residence here that may be of interest. These papers are prepared by Mr. Thurber, a young naturalist who has made a close study of the feathered tribes here and who has a superb collection, some of which are very rare and valuable.
A LIST OF BIRDS OF MORRIS COUNTY, NEW JERSEY
BY E. CARLETON THURBER
This list is the result of over four years observation of the birds of this county.
Special mention is due to Mr. A. K. Fairchild, of Malapardis, for records kindly furnished – especially of Water Birds. Mr. M. M. Green, now of Washington, D.C., likewise supplied useful records while residing in Morristown:
1. (Podilymbus podiceps) Pied billed Grebe. A rather rare summer resident. I know of no instance of its breeding.
2. (Urinator imber) Loon. A rare transient: has been observed several times on Lake Hopatcong and Budd’s Lake.
3. (Larus argentatus smithsonianus) Am. Herring Gull. Rare. One was shot near Whippany, May 2, 1886.
4. (Larus attricilla) Laughing Gull. Not uncommon in early spring.
5. (Merganser americanus) Merganser. “Shelldrake.” Rare migrant.
6. (Lophodytes cucullatus) Hooded Merganser. “Hooded Shelldrake.” Rare migrant.
7. (Anas boschas) Mallard. Tolerably common migrant.
8. (Anas obscura) Black Duck. Common migrant. The commonest of our ducks. Probably breeds.
9. (Anas strepera) Gadwall. Rare migrant (Fairchild).
10. (Anas americana) Baldplate. “Widgeon.” A rather rare migrant.
11. (Anas carolinsensis) Green-winged Teal
12. (Anas discors) Blue-winged Teal. These two Teal are found in about equal numbers along our rivers in spring and fall.
13. (Dafila acuta) Pintail. Rare migrant.
14. (Aix sponsa) Wood Duck. A common migrant, a few breeding. About four years ago a pair bred at Speedwell Pond.
15. (Aythya affinis) Lesser Scaup. A rare migrant. (Fairchild)
16. (Charitonetta albeola) Bufflehead. A rare migrant.
17. Clangula hyemalis) Old-squaw. “Long-tailed Duck”. A rare migrant (Fairchild.)
18. (Erismatura rubida) Ruddy Duck. A rare migrant, generally seen in spring.
19. (Branta Canadensis) Canada Goose. Not uncommon in spring and fall, generally passing over without alighting.
20. (Botaurus lentiginosus) Am. Bittern. A tolerably common summer resident.
21. (Botaurus exilis) Least Bittern. A rare summer resident. Breeds.
22. (Ardea herodias) Great Blue Heron. A common migrant, a few breeding.
23. (Ardea egretta) Am. Egret. A rare summer resident.
24. (Ardea candidissima) Snowy Heron. Rare. One shot by Mr. John Tunis of New Verson, about 1881, and now in his possession.
25. (Ardea virescens) Green Heron. A common summer resident. Breeds.
26. (Nycticorax nycticorax naevius) Night Heron. A common summer resident. Formerly there were several large heronries near Morristown, but they have been broken up by egg collectors and sportsmen shooting off the old birds.
27. (Rallus virginianus) Virginia Rail. A common migrant on wet meadows. Probably breeds.
28. (Porzana Carolina) Sora Rail. A common migrant.
29. (Porzana noveboracensis) [Yellow Rail – ed.] A very rare migrant (Fairchild).
30. (Gallinula galeata) Florida Gallinule. A rare summer visitor.
31. (Fulica americana) Am. Coot. A rather rare summer resident. Breeds.
32. (Philohela minor) Am. Woodcock. A common summer resident, breeding on the hills; is here about ten months in the year.
33. (Gallinago delicata) Wilson’s Snipe. “English Snipe” of the sportsmen. A common migrant.
34. (Tringa maculata) Pectoral Sandpiper. A rather common migrant.
35. (Tringa minutilla) Least Sandpiper. A tolerably common migrant.
36. (Ereunetes pusillus) Semipalmated Sandpiper. A tolerably common migrant.
37. (Totanus melanoleuens) Greater Yellow-legs. A rare migrant.
38. (Totanus flavipes) Yellow-legs. A common migrant.
39. (Totanus solitarius) Solitary Sandpiper. A rather common migrant.
40. (Bartramia longicauda) Bartramian Sandpiper. “Upland Plover”. A rather common summer resident, breeding on wet meadows.
41. (Actitis macularia) Spotted Sandpiper. “Tip-up.” A common summer resident.
42. (Charidrius dominicus) Am. Golden Plover. A rare migrant.
43. (Aegialites vocifera) Killdeer. A tolerably common summer resident.
44. (Colinus virginianus) Bob-white. “Quail.” A common permanent resident. Breeds.
45. (Bonasa umbellus) Ruffed Grouse. “Partridge.” A common permanent resident. Breeds.
46. (Ectopistes migratorius) Passenger Pigeon. Formerly very abundant, but now rare. I saw one that was shot at Morris Plains, Sept. 16, 1885.
47. (Zenaidura macroura) Mourning Dove. A common summer resident. Breeds. Has been seen here in winter.
48. (Cathartes aura) Turkey Vulture. “Turkey Buzzard.” A rare accidental visitor. Mr. Fairchild saw one several years ago. One was caught alive near Morristown in the latter part of September, 1887.
49. (Elanoides forficatus) Swallow-tailed Kite. A rare accidental visitor. Two were seen near Horse Hill by L.P. Scherrer and Geo. Hild, Sept. 18, 1887.
50. (Circus hudsonius) Marsh Hawk. “Harrier.” A common summer resident. Breeds. Old males of this species are of a light gray color, nearly white, and are often mistaken for a strange bird.
51. (Accipiter velox) Sharp-shinned Hawk. A common migrant. Breeds rarely, on high hills.
52. (Accipiter cooperii) Cooper’s Hawk. A common summer resident. Breeds. Is very destructive to poultry.
53. (Accipiter atricapallus) Goshawk. A rare winter visitant.
54. (Buteo borealis) Red-tailed Hawk. “Hen-hawk.” A tolerably common permanent resident Breeds. While it may occasionally kill poultry it is very useful on account of the enormous number of mice and small reptiles it destroys.
55. (Buteo lineatus) Red-shouldered Hawk. Common permanent resident. Breeds. Lives almost entirely on small rodents, is very fond of squirrels, especially red squirrels (Sciuris husonius) and generally nests where they are plenty.
56. (Buteo latissimus) Broad-winged Hawk. A tolerably common migrant. Breeds rarely.
57. (Archibuteo sancti-johannis) Am. Rough-legged Hawk. “Black Hawk.” (dark phase). A rather rare winter visitor.
58. (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) Bald Eagle. A rare accidental visitor.
59. (Falco columbarius) Pigeon Hawk. Rare migrant. Though of small size is quite destructive to poultry.
60. (Falco sparverius) Sparrow Hawk. Common summer resident, and probably winter resident also. Breeds. Its principal food is grasshoppers.
61. (Pandion haliaetus carolinensis) [Osprey, ed.] A tolerably common summer visitor. Is often mistaken for the Bald Eagle.
62. (Strix pratincola) Am. Barn Owl. A rare accidental visitor. Mr. Fairchild has two specimens shot near Whippany.
63. (Asio wilsonianus) Am. Long-eared Owl. A tolerably common resident. Breeds.
64. (Asio accipitrinus) Short-eared Owl. A rather common late fall and early spring migrant. Is useful because of its havoc among field mice.
65. (Syrnium nebulosum) Barred Owl. Rather common resident. Breeds.
66. (Scotiaplex cinerea) Great Gray Owl. One was shot near Mendham a number of years ago by Mr. Fairchild’s father.
67. (Nyctala acadica) Saw-whet Owl. A rare winter visitor. The smallest of our local owls, being only about eight inches long.
68. (Megascops asio) Screech Owl. A very common resident. Breeds. Has a gray and red phase, dependent on neither sex nor season.
69. (Bubo virginianus) Great Horned Owl. A rather rare resident. Breeds. Is very destructive to poultry and small birds.
70. (Nyctea nyctea) Snowy Owl. Rare winter visitor. Only seen in intervals of about ten yars. Four or five were shot near Morristown during the winter of 1886-87.
71. (Coccyzus americanus) Yellow-billed Cuckoo. [illegible.]
72. (Coccyzus erythropthalmus)Black-billed Cuckoo. . [illegible]…are common summer residents, almost abundant in the fall. Breeds.
73. (Ceryle alcyon) Belted Kingfisher. Common resident except during the winter months. Breeds.
74. (Dryobates villosus ) Hairy Woodpecker. Rather rare resident, more common in winter. Breeds rarely.
[ The second installment from the November 17, 1887, issue of the True Democratic Banner, Morristown, NJ.]
A LIST OF BIRDS OF MORRIS COUNTY, NEW JERSEY
BY E. CARLETON THURBER
75. (Dryobates pubescens) Downy Woodpecker. A common permanent resident. Breeds. An exact counterpart of the hairy Woodpecker except as to size, it being considerably smaller.
76. (Sphyrapicus varius) Yellow-bellied Sapsucker. Common migrant. Does considerable damage to trees by stripping off the bark to get at the sap.
77. (Ceophloeus pileatus) Pileated Woodpecker. Very rare. One shot near Montville a number of years ago (Fairchild).
78. (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) Red-headed Woodpecker. Common summer resident, although varying greatly in numbers in different years.
79. (Colaptes auratus) Flicker. “Golden-winged Woodpecker”. “High holder.“ “Yucker”. From its cry in the spring. Common summer resident. Sometimes seen in winter. Breeds.
80. (Antrostomus vociferus) Whip-poorwhil. Rare migrant. Sits parallel with the limb of a tree instead of at right angles with it.
81. (Chordeiles virginianus) Nighthawk. Common migrant.
82. (Chaetura pelagica) Chimney Swift. “Chimney Swallow.” Abundant summer resident. Breeds everywhere in chimneys.
83. (Trochilus coubris) Ruby-throated Hummingbird. A rather common summer resident. Breeds.
84. (Tyrannus tyrannus) Kingbird. “Bee Martin.” Common summer resident. Breeds. Destroys great numbers of bees and wasps.
85. (Myiarchus crinitus) Crested Flyctcher. Common summer resident. Breeds in holes in trees, a discarded snake skin being almost invariably found among the nesting materials.
86. (Sayornis phoebe) Phoebe. “Bridge Pewee.” Common summer resident. Builds under bridges.
87. (Contopus borealis) Olive-sided Fly-catcher. Rare migrant.
88. (Contopus virens) Wood Pewee. Common summer resident. Breeds in numbers, covering the outside of its nest with gray moss.
89. (Empidonax flaviventris) Yellow-bellied Flycatcher. Tolerably common migrant.
90. (Empidonax minimus) Least Flycatcher. “Chebec.” From its call-note. Tolerably common summer resident. Probably breeds.
91. (Otocoris alpestris) Horned Lark. “Shore Lark.” At intervals of three or four years this is a common winter visitor.
92. (Cyanocitta cristata) Blue Jay. Abundant resident. Breeds. A rowdy bird, always making a disturbance in the woods. Has a predilection for other bird’s eggs.
93. (Corvus corax sinutus) Am. Raven. Rare. One shot by Mr. L.P. Scherrer about 1881.
94. (Corvus americanus) Am. Crow. Abundant resident. Breeds.
95. (Dolichonyx oryzivorous) Bobolink. “Reed bird” along the Chesapeake. “Rice-bird” and “May-bird” in the south. A common summer resident. Breeds. Dr. Merriam, the U.S. Ornithologist, estimates the annual loss to the rice-growers by the depradations of this bird at $2,000,000. (Dept. of Agri. Rep., 1886, p. 217).
96. (Molothrus ater) Cowbird. Common summer resident. Breeds, laying its eggs in other birds’ nests.
97. (Agelaius phoeniceus) Red-winged Blackbird. Common summer resident. Breeds.
98. (Sturnella magna) Meadowlark. Common summer resident. Breeds. A few winter here.
99. (Icterus spurius) Orchard Oriole. Tolerably common summer resident. Breeds.
100. (Icterus galbula) Baltimore Oriole. “Hang-nest.” “Baltimore Robin.” “Fire-bird.” Common summer resident. Has a preference for elms for nesting. Two or three of its pensile nests of as many different years, being sometimes seen on one of these trees.
101. (Scolecophagus carolinus) Rusty Blackbird. A rather common migrant.
102. (Quiscalus quiscula) Purple Grackle. “Crow Blackbird.” An abundant summer resident. Breeds. This and the following subspecies are very destructive to corn when just planted.
103. (Quiscalus quiscula aeneas) Bronzed Grackle. “Crow Blackbird”. Common migrant. I do not think it ever summers here.
104. (Pinicola enucleator canadensis) Am. Pine Grosbeak. “Bullfinch.” A rare winter visitor, only appearing at long intervals. The male is dull rose pink, wings and tail dusky. Female: wings and tail as in the male, rest of plumage dull grayish, olive-tawny on head. Length 8.25 to 9.[illegible] Inches, wing 4.50-5[illegible.]
105. (Carpodacus purpureus) Purple or Rosy Finch. Common winter resident staying in the cedars during the colder months.
106. (Loxia curvirostra minor) Am. Crossbill. A very rare winter visitor,
107. (Acanthis linaria) Redpoll. Rare winter visitor. The adults have a crown of bright crimson, otherwise are like small sparrows.
108. (Spinus tristis) Am. Goldfinch. “Yellowbird.” “Wild Canary.” An abundant permanent resident. Breeds late in July and early part of August.
109. (Spinus pinus) Pine Siskin. “Pine Goldfinch.” Not uncommon as a winter visitor.
110. (Passer domesticus) European House Sparrow. “English Sparrow.” An abundant permanent resident. This little pest now occupies nearly the whole country from the Atlantic to the Mississippi. [Illegible] not only…the caterpillars it was imported to destroy but drive away those of our native birds that feed on these insects.
111. (Plectrophenax nivalis) Snowflake. “Snow Bunting.” Rare winter vistor. A few were seen here in the winter of 1886-87.
112. (Calcarius lapponicus) Lapland Longspur. A rare winter visitor, sometimes seen in flocks of Horned Larks and Snowflakes.
113. (Pooecetes gramineus) Vesper Sparrow. “Baywinged Bunting.” A common migrant, rare in summer. Breeds.
114. (Ammodranus sandwichensis savanna) Savanna Sparrow. Common migrant, rarer in summer. Breeds.
115. (Ammodramus savannarum passerinus) Grasshopper Sparrow. “Yellow-winged Sparrow.” Rather common summer resident. Breeds (Fairchild.)
116. (Ammodramus henslowii) Henslow’s Sparrow. Rather common summer resident, but very local. The only places that I know of its being found are, a large meadow near Horse Hill, and in Wheeler Swamp near Littleton.
117. (Ammodramus caudacutus) Sharp-tailed Sparrow. Not uncommon along the Passaic below Chatham. (Fairchild.)
118. (Zonotrichia leucophrys) White-crowned Sparrow. This handsome sparrow is a rather rare migrant.
119. (Zonotrichia albicollis) White-throated Sparrow. An abundant migrant.
120. (Spizella monticola) Tree Sparrow. Abundant winter resident. Is often mistaken for the Chipping or Field Sparrows, which are not found here during the winter.
121. (Spizella socialis) Chipping Sparrow. Common summer resident. Breeds, generally using horse-hair for lining its nest. May easily be distinguished from the following, by its black bill, that of the Field Sparrow being brownish red.
122. (Spizella pusilla) Field Sparrow. Common summer resident. Breeds.
123. (Junco hyemalis) Slate colored Junco. “Black Snowbird.” An abundant migrant, a few generally staying all winter, but in cold winters, is a migrant only.
124. (Melospiza fasciata) Song Sparrow. An abundant resident, wintering in considerable numbers. Breeds.
125. (Melospiza Georgiana) Swamp Sparrow. A common migrant.
126. (Melospiza lincolnii) Lincoln’s Sparrow. A rare migrant.
127. (Passerella iliaca) Fox Sparrow. A rather common late fall and early spring migrant.
128. (Pipilo erythrophthalmus) Towhee. “Chewink.” “Ground Finkee.” All of these names are attempts to represent the characteristic cry of this species. Common summer resident. Breeds.
129. (Cardinalis cardinalis) Cardinal. “Cardinal Grosbeak.” A very rare permanent resident. Breeds.
130. (Habia ludoviciana) Rose-breasted Grosbeak. “Cherry-bird.” This beautiful bird is a common summer resident, breeding commonly.
131. (Guiraca caerulea) Blue Grosbeak. A very rare accidental visitor. (Fairchild.)
132. (Passerina cyanea) Indigo Bunting. A common summer resident. Breeds.
[The final installment from the November 24, 1887, issue of the True Democratic Banner, Morristown, NJ.]
A LIST OF BIRDS OF MORRIS COUNTY, NEW JERSEY
BY E. CARLETON THURBER
133. (Piranga rubra) Summer Tanager. “Summer Redbird.” A rare accidental visitor.
134. (Piranga erythromelas) Scarlet Tanager. A common migrant. Breeds rarely. The male is well-known, the female is olive-green, with black tail and wings. The male is said to change into female plumage in fall.
135. (Progne subis) Purple Martin. A rather common summer resident, very local. The only place that I have seen them breeding near Morristown is at a bird-house near the Farmer’s Hotel.
136. (Petrochelidon lunifrons) Cliff Swallow. “Eave Swallow.” Common summer resident. Breeds freely, building their bottle-shaped mud nests under the eaves of buildings.
137. (Chelidon erythrogastra) Barn Swallow. Common summer resident. Breeds.
138. (Tachycineta bicolor) Tree Swallow. “White-bellied Swallow.” I only know of this bird as a common migrant, but undoubtedly a few summer here.
139. (Clivicola riparia) Bank Swallow. A tolerably common summer resident. Breeds in holes in sand-banks.
140. (Stelgidopteryx serripennis) Rough-winged Swallow. Tolerably common summer resident. May be distinguished from the Bank Swallow by a series of stiff, recurved hooks on the outer edge of first wing-quill. Breeds under bridges principally.
141. (Ampelis cedrorum) Cedar Waxwing. “Cedar bird.” “Cherry-bird.” A common permanent resident. Breeds late in June.
142. (Ampelis garrulous) Bohemian Waxwing. This wanderer has been recorded from the county but once, and that by Dr. C.C. Abbott (see Geology of N.J., 1868, p. 774.)
143. (Lanius borealis) Northern Shrike. “Butcher-bird.” A rather rare winter visitor.
144. (Vireo olivaceous) Red-eyed Vireo. An abundant migrant and tolerably common summer resident. Breeds.
145. (Vireo gilvus) Warbling Vireo. A not-uncommon summer resident. Breeds.
146. (Vireo flavifrons) Yellow-throated Vireo. A tolerably common summer resident. Breeds.
147. (Vireo solitarius) Blue-headed Vireo. Rather rare migrant.
148. (Vireo novaboracensis) White-eyed Vireo. A common summer resident.
149. (Mniotilta varia) Black and White Warbler. “Black and White Creeper.” An abundant migrant, a few summering
150. (Helmithrus vermivorous) Worm-eating Warbler. Rare summer resident.
151. (Helminthophila chrysoptera) Golden-winged Warbler. A rare summer resident. Breeds.
152. (Helminthophila lawrencei) Lawrence’s Warbler. An aberrant species of this supposed hybrid is in the possession of Major A. Blanchet of Monroe. The type was taken near Chatham but on the Essex Co. side of the Passaic. It is supposed to be a hybrid between the preceding and the following. Very rare.
153. (Helminthophila pinus) Blue-winged Warbler. A rare summer resident. Breeds.
154. (Helminthophila leucobronchialis) White-throated Warbler. Has twice been taken in the county. Is supposed to be a hybrid between the Blue-winged and Golden-winged Warblers.
155. (Helminthophila peregrine) Tennessee Warbler. A rare migrant.
156. (Helminthophila celata) Orange-crowned Warbler. A very rare migrant.
157. (Helminthophila ruficapilla) Nashville Warbler. A not uncommon migrant.
158. (Compsothlypis americana) Parula Warbler. “Blue-yellow-backed Warbler.” This pretty little bird is an abundant migrant.
159. (Dendroica tigrina) Cape May Warbler. A rare migrant. Maj. Blanchet has a male in his collection, taken in the county.
160. (Dendroica aestiva) Yellow Warbler. “Summer Yellow-bird.” Rather common summer resident. Breeds.
161. (Dendroica caerulescens) Black-throated Blue warbler. A common migrant.
162. (Dendroica coronata) Myrtle Warbler. “Yellow-rump Warbler.” An abundant late fall and early spring migrant.
163. (Dendroica maculosa) Magnolia Warbler. “Black and Yellow Warbler.” Common migrant.
164. (Dendroica pensylvanica) Chestnut-sided warbler. An abundant migrant, and a rare summer resident. The young in the fall are very common. Breeds.
165. (Dendroica castanea) Bay-breasted Warbler. Rare in spring, but the young are not uncommon in fall.
166. (Dendroica striata) Black-poll Warbler. A common migrant. The last of the migrating warblers in spring.
167. (Dendroica blackburniae) Blackburnian Warbler. This, the handsomest of the warblers, is rather rare in the spring, but common in the fall migrations.
168. (Dendroica virens) Black-throated Green Warbler. A common migrant.
169. (Dendroica vigorsii) Pine Warbler. Common migrant. Abundant in the fall.
170. (Dendroica discolor) Prairie Warbler. A rather rare migrant. I have only seen it in spring.
171. (Dendroica palmarum hypochrysea) Yellow Palm Warbler. Rather rare migrant.
172. (Seiurus aurocapilla) Ovenbird. “Golden-crowned Thrush.” Common summer resident. Breeds: nest on ground, generally with a covered archway of grass leading to it.
173. (Seiurus noveboracensis) Waterthrush. Rather a common migrant.
174. (Seiurus motocilla) Louisiana Waterthrush. “Large-billed Waterthrush.” Not uncommon as a summer resident.
175. (Geothylpis aegilis) Connecticut Warbler. Rare autumnal migrant. I have never seen it here in spring.
176. (Geothylpis philadelphia) Mourning Warbler. Rare migrant.
177. (Geothylpis trichas) Maryland Yellow-throat. Common summer resident. Breeds. Is very much like a Wren in its habits.
178. (Icteria virens) Yellow-breasted Chat. Rather common summer resident. Breeds. Has a habit of singing at night, and also of singing while fluttering in the air, from which it has acquired the name of the “dancing Chat.”
179. (Sylvania mitrata) Hooded Warbler. Very rare summer resident. (Fairchild.)
180. (Sylvania pusilla) Wilson’s Warbler. Rare migrant.
181. (Sylvania canadensis) Canadian Warbler. Common migrant.
182. (Setophaga ruticilla) Am. Redstart. Common migrant, rare summer resident. Breeds.
183. (Anthus pensilvanicus) Am. Pipit. “Am. Titlark.” Common migrant.
184. (Mimus polyglottos) Mockingbird. Very rare summer resident.
185. (Harporhynchus rufus) Brown Thrasher. “Brown Thrush.” A tolerably common summer resident. Breeds. Is nearly equal to the Mockingbird as a songster.
186. (Galeoscoptes carolinensis) Catbird. Abundant summer resident. Breeds.
187. (Thryothorus ludovicianus) Carolina Wren. Very rare summer resident. Breeds.
188. (Troglodytes Aedon) House Wren. Common summer resident. Breeds.
189. (Troglodytes hiemalis) Winter Wren. A rather common migrant.
190. (Cistothorus stellaris) Short-billed Marsh Wren. A not uncommon summer resident. Breeds.
191. (Cistothorus palustris) Long-billed Marsh Wren. Common summer resident. Breeds.
192. (Certhia familiaris Americana) Brown Creeper. Common migrant.
193. (Sitta carolinensis) White-breasted Nuthatch. Common permanent resident. Breeds.
194. (Sitta canadensis) Red-breasted Nuthatch. Rare winter visitor.
195. (Parus bicolor) Tufted Titmouse. Tolerably common permanent resident. Breeds.
196. (Parus atricapillus) Chicadee. Rather rare in summer, but common during the rest of the year. Breeds on the higher hills mostly.
197. (Regulus satrapa) Golden-crowned Kinglet. Common winter resident.
198. (Regulus calendula) Ruby-crowned Kinglet. Common migrant.
199. (Turdus mustelinus) Wood Thrush. Abundant summer resident. Our commonest breeding bird.
200. (Turdus fascescens) Wilson’s Thrush. Common summer resident. Breeds.
201. (Turdus ustulatus swainsonii) Olive-backed Thrush. Tolerably common migrant.
202. (Turdus aonalaschkae pallasii) Hermit Thrush. A common migrant.
203. (Merula migratoria) A,. Robin. Common summer resident, rather rare in winter. Breeds.
204. (Sialis sialis) Bluebird. Common permanent resident. Breeds in boxes and bird-houses. The western species of the Bluebird have not yet become civilized enough to nest in bird-houses, but still breed in cavities of trees, which our own species still does to some extent.
205. (Phalacrocorax dilophus) Double-crested Cormorant. A Cormorant, probably of this species, was brought to Mr. Fairchild in Oct., 1880.; it was shot near Littleton. It is now in the possession of Mr. Harry Fairchild, of Orange, NJ.
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